Tata Steel

Coal Middlings

Coal Middlings are by-products of the three stage coal washing or coal beneficiation process. These coal washery by-products are generated from the coarse circuit of the coal washery process at the Tata Steel colliery in West Bokaro, India.

Tata steel West Bokaro division produces approx. 2 MTPA of Middling coal and sells to different power plant customers. The coal after mining is washed in the coal beneficiation plants to lower down the ash content from an average of 36% to 15 -18%. This is a highly commendable achievement, especially in view of the fact that Indian coal comes under the category of “difficult to wash coal”.

At present, the Division operates four open cast coal mines viz., Quarry A, C D & SEB and two coal Washeries to produce about 2.5 MTPA of coking coal at 18% ash for the steel plant. Both Washeries produce clean coal at 18% ash and three types of coal by-products i.e. middlings, tailings and rejects.

About 40% of the feed material is cleared out as Middlings. The size of Middlings range between 0.5 - 13 mm and have Calorific Value varying between 4200 - 4500 Kcal/Kg.

Coal washery by-products such as Coal Middlings are a widely used coal by-product for Power Plants in India. Over the years, coal by-products from the Industrial By-Product Management Division (IBMD) of Tata Steel have been used in power generation across power plants in East India owing to its superiority of its grade which is equivalent to Coal India Grade (CIL G10).

Coal Middlings are a viable alternative to imported coal for Power Plants India as these has to be in line with specific guidelines and our coal washery by-products not only meet the specific requirements but also exceed it in terms of dependability. Consistency of supply coupled with an established transport network make our Middlings the best among our competitors. Coal Middlings are suitable for usage in both CFBC and AFBC boilers in Thermal Power Plants. The major advantages of using Coal Middlings from IBMD in these boilers are -

  • Optimum Size (6-15mm) - Helps in flowability
  • Low VM
  • Low Moisture (4-6%)

In a recent development, Tata Steel through IBMD also offers Coal Middlings by using the retail chain to red brick makers in and around Bihar.


Coal Middlings, finds its use in numerous industry segments such as the following –

Thermal Power Plant
  • Coal for Power Plants in India - Coal Middlings are used for power generation in captive and independent Thermal Power Plants.
  • Cement Plants - Coal washery by-products, mainly Coal Middlings are also used in Cement Plants (mostly for power generation).
  • Ferro Alloy Plants- Coal Middlings are also used in Ferro Alloy Plants. Here, Middlings are blended with coke and then used as a reducing agent.
  • Coal Middlings are also used in domestic fuel plants, brick manufacturing units, cement plants, and other industrial plants.

The following summarizes the usage and characteristics of Coal Middlings:

Application Areas Ash% VM% Moisture% GCV (Kcal/Kg)
Thermal Power Plant Boilers, Brick Plants 41-44 17-19 4-6 4200-4600


Coal Middlings from the Industrial By-Products Division (IBMD) of Tata Steel are supplied loaded onto rakes through the West Bokaro Chainpur Siding and / or alternatively through Kuju Siding. Truck dispatch to Power Plants / end users is also possible through approved loaders and transporters.

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